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Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD)

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Gigantomastia


Other Names for this Disease

  • Drug-induced gigantomastia (subtype)
  • Gestational gigantomastia (subtype)
  • Idiopathic gigantomastia (subtype)
  • Juvenile gigantomastia (subtype)
  • Macromastia
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Your Question

My wife had a breast reduction to cure gigantomastia. But after a year, the ailment recurred.  What treatment options might be available for her now?

Our Answer

We have identified the following information that we hope you find helpful. If you still have questions, please contact us.

What is gigantomastia?

Gigantomastia is a rare condition that is characterized by excessive breast growth that may occur spontaneously, during puberty or pregnancy, or while taking certain medications.[1][2] To date, there is no universally accepted definition for gigantomastia; however, Dancey et al. (2007) state that a review of the medical literature suggests that definitions range from a D-cup bra size to breast enlargement requiring reduction of over 0.8 - 2 kg, which is equivalent to about 1.75 - 4.5 pounds. The exact cause of gigantomastia has not been determined. Nonetheless, the following theories have been proposed to explain gigantomastia: (1) end-organ hypersensitivity (a condition in which the breast tissue is more sensitive to hormones circulating in the body), (2) autoimmune issues, (3) high IGF-1 (insulin growth factor-1, a hormone involved in regulating bone growth) and (4) hyperprolactanemia (high levels of prolactin). [3] Gigantomastia has been noted as a side effect of treatment with certain medications like D-pencillamine and in one case as an apparently hereditary condition. [2] Symptoms of gigantomastic may include mastalgia (breast pain), ulceration/infection, posture problems, back pain and chronic traction injury to 4th/5th/6th intercostal nerves with resultant loss of nipple sensation. It is may also associated with decreased fetal growth, if the gigantomastia is present during pregnancy. [1] Treatment is based on the person's symptoms and may include breast reduction, mastectomy with or without reconstruction, hormonal treatment, or a combination of treatments.[1][3]
Last updated: 6/29/2009

What treatment might be available for someone who has had recurrence of gigantomastia following a breast reduction?

Breast reduction with or without hormonal therapy is often the first line of treatment for women who have gigantomastia. However, recurrence of gigantomastia may occur, requiring a second breast reduction procedure or mastectomy. Mastectomy might be recommended following recurrence of gigantomastia after breast reduction, especially in those patients who have  gigantomastia associated with puberty or pregnancy.[1]  It is important to discuss this information with a health care provider in order to determine what treatment might be appropriate.
Last updated: 6/29/2009

References
  • Dancey A, Khan M, Dawson J, Peart F. Gigantomastia - a classification and review of the literature. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. December 13, 2007;
  • Kulkarni D, Beechey-Newman N, Hamed H, Fentiman IS. Gigantomastia: A problem of local recurrence. The Breast. 2006;
  • Antevski BM, Smilevski DA, Stojovski MZ, Filipovski VA, Banev SG. Extreme gigantomastia in pregnancy: case report and review of literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2007;
Other Names for this Disease
  • Drug-induced gigantomastia (subtype)
  • Gestational gigantomastia (subtype)
  • Idiopathic gigantomastia (subtype)
  • Juvenile gigantomastia (subtype)
  • Macromastia
See Disclaimer regarding information on this site. Some links on this page may take you to organizations outside of the National Institutes of Health.