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Diseases

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD)

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Dwarfism

*

* Not a rare disease

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Overview

What is dwarfism?

How is dwarfism diagnosed?

What is dwarfism?

Dwarfism is a condition that is characterized by short stature, usually resulting in an adult height of 4'10" or shorter.[1][2] Dwarfism can and most often does occur in families where both parents are of average height.[3] It can be caused by any one of more than 300 conditions, most of which are genetic. The most common type, accounting for 70% of all cases of short stature, is called achondroplasia.[3] Other genetic conditions, kidney disease and problems with metabolism or hormones can also cause short stature. Dwarfism itself is not a disease; however, there is a greater risk of some health problems. With proper medical care, most people with dwarfism have active lives and a normal life expectancy.[4]
Last updated: 5/19/2011

How is dwarfism diagnosed?

Some types of dwarfism can be identified through prenatal testing if a doctor suspects a particular condition and tests for it. However, most cases are not identified until after the child is born. In those instances, the doctor makes a diagnosis based on the child's appearance, failure to grow, and X-rays of the bones. Depending on the type of dwarfism the child has, diagnosis often can be made almost immediately after birth. Once a diagnosis is made, there is no "treatment" for most of the conditions that lead to short stature. Hormonal or metabolic problems may be treated with hormone injections or special diets to spark a child's growth, but skeletal dysplasias cannot be "cured."[3] Individuals who are interested in learning whether they or family members have, or are at risk for, dwarfism should speak with their health care provider or a genetics professional.
Last updated: 5/19/2011

References
  1. Dwarfism. Genetics Home Reference. May 15, 2011; http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary=dwarfism. Accessed 5/19/2011.
  2. Frequently Asked Questions. Little People of America. http://www.lpaonline.org/mc/page.do?sitePageId=84634&orgId=lpa#Definition. Accessed 5/19/2011.
  3. Angela L. Duker. Dwarfism. KidsHealth. March 2011; http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/bones/dwarfism.html. Accessed 5/19/2011.
  4. Dwarfism. MedlinePlus. March 23, 2011; http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/dwarfism.html. Accessed 5/19/2011.


See Disclaimer regarding information on this site. Some links on this page may take you to organizations outside of the National Institutes of Health.