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Diseases

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD)

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Baller-Gerold syndrome


Other Names for this Disease

  • BGS
  • Craniosynostosis with radial defects
  • Craniosynostosis-radial aplasia syndrome
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Symptoms

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What are the signs and symptoms of Baller-Gerold syndrome?

Many people with Baller-Gerold syndrome have prematurely fused skull bones along the coronal suture, the growth line that goes over the head from ear to ear. Other parts of the skull may be malformed as well. These changes result in an abnormally shaped head, a prominent forehead, and bulging eyes with shallow eye sockets (ocular proptosis). Other distinctive facial features can include widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism), a small mouth, and a saddle-shaped or underdeveloped nose.[1]

Bone abnormalities in the hands include missing fingers (oligodactyly) and malformed or absent thumbs. Partial or complete absence of bones in the forearm is also common. Together, these hand and arm abnormalities are called radial ray malformations.[1]

People with Baller-Gerold syndrome may have a variety of additional signs and symptoms including slow growth beginning in infancy, small stature, and malformed or missing kneecaps (patellae). A skin rash often appears on the arms and legs a few months after birth. This rash spreads over time, causing patchy changes in skin coloring, areas of skin tissue degeneration, and small clusters of enlarged blood vessels just under the skin. These chronic skin problems are collectively known as poikiloderma.[1]

Last updated: 5/25/2011

The Human Phenotype Ontology provides the following list of signs and symptoms for Baller-Gerold syndrome. If the information is available, the table below includes how often the symptom is seen in people with this condition. You can use the MedlinePlus Medical Dictionary to look up the definitions for these medical terms.

Signs and Symptoms Approximate number of patients (when available)
Abnormality of the fontanelles and cranial sutures 90%
Aplasia/Hypoplasia of the thumb 90%
Frontal bossing 90%
Proptosis 90%
Short stature 90%
Split hand 90%
Aplasia/Hypoplasia involving the nose 50%
Bowing of the long bones 50%
Ectopic anus 50%
Intrauterine growth retardation 50%
Malabsorption 50%
Narrow mouth 50%
Patellar aplasia 50%
Abnormal localization of kidney 7.5%
Abnormality of the cardiac septa 7.5%
Broad forehead 7.5%
Cleft palate 7.5%
Conductive hearing impairment 7.5%
Epicanthus 7.5%
Hypertelorism 7.5%
Hypotelorism 7.5%
Lymphoma 7.5%
Micrognathia 7.5%
Narrow face 7.5%
Narrow nasal bridge 7.5%
Neoplasm of the skeletal system 7.5%
Nystagmus 7.5%
Poikiloderma 7.5%
Prominent nasal bridge 7.5%
Scoliosis 7.5%
Urogenital fistula 7.5%
Vesicoureteral reflux 7.5%
Abnormality of the kidney -
Abnormality of the vertebrae -
Absent radius -
Agenesis of corpus callosum -
Anal atresia -
Anomalous splenoportal venous system -
Anteriorly placed anus -
Aphalangy of the hands -
Aplasia of metacarpal bones -
Autosomal recessive inheritance -
Bifid uvula -
Brachyturricephaly -
Carpal bone aplasia -
Carpal synostosis -
Choanal stenosis -
Coronal craniosynostosis -
Downslanted palpebral fissures -
Flat forehead -
High palate -
Hydrocephalus -
Hypoplasia of the radius -
Hypoplasia of the ulna -
Intellectual disability -
Lambdoidal craniosynostosis -
Limited elbow movement -
Limited shoulder movement -
Low-set, posteriorly rotated ears -
Malformation of the heart and great vessels -
Midface capillary hemangioma -
Myopia -
Optic atrophy -
Patellar hypoplasia -
Perineal fistula -
Polymicrogyria -
Rectovaginal fistula -
Rib fusion -
Sagittal craniosynostosis -
Seizures -
Short humerus -
Spina bifida occulta -
Strabismus -
Ulnar bowing -
Underdeveloped nasal alae -

Last updated: 9/2/2014

The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) has collected information on how often a sign or symptom occurs in a condition. Much of this information comes from Orphanet, a European rare disease database. The frequency of a sign or symptom is usually listed as a rough estimate of the percentage of patients who have that feature.

The frequency may also be listed as a fraction. The first number of the fraction is how many people had the symptom, and the second number is the total number of people who were examined in one study. For example, a frequency of 25/25 means that in a study of 25 people all patients were found to have that symptom. Because these frequencies are based on a specific study, the fractions may be different if another group of patients are examined.

Sometimes, no information on frequency is available. In these cases, the sign or symptom may be rare or common.


References
  1. Baller-Gerold syndrome. Genetics Home Reference (GHR). 2008; http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/baller-gerold-syndrome. Accessed 5/26/2011.


Other Names for this Disease
  • BGS
  • Craniosynostosis with radial defects
  • Craniosynostosis-radial aplasia syndrome
See Disclaimer regarding information on this site. Some links on this page may take you to organizations outside of the National Institutes of Health.