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Adult-onset citrullinemia type II


Other Names for this Disease

  • Adult-onset citrullinemia type 2
  • Citrin deficiency
  • Citrullinemia type 2
  • Citrullinemia type II
  • CTLN2
See Disclaimer regarding information on this site. Some links on this page may take you to organizations outside of the National Institutes of Health.

Your Question

I have a patient with urine citrulline levels at twice the upper limit of normal. All other urinary amino acids were low-normal. This patient has legitimate complaints of decreased energy as well. Standard CPE labs were normal. What is the typical presentation of citrullinemia type II? How is it diagnosed? How is it treated? Who is conducting research into this condition.

Our Answer

We have identified the following information that we hope you find helpful. If you still have questions, please contact us.

What is adult-onset citrullinemia type II?

Adult-onset citrullinemia type II is an inherited disorder that causes ammonia and other toxic substances to accumulate in the blood. The condition chiefly affects the nervous system, causing confusion, restlessness, memory loss, abnormal behaviors (such as aggression, irritability, and hyperactivity), seizures, and coma. These signs and symptoms can be life-threatening. The signs and symptoms appear during adulthood and are triggered by certain medications, infections, surgery, and alcohol intake. The features of adult-onset type II citrullinemia may also develop in people who as infants had a liver disorder called neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD). In many cases, the signs and symptoms of NICCD resolve within a year. Years or even decades later, however, some of these people develop the characteristic features of adult-onset type II citrullinemia. Adult-onset citrullinemia type II is caused by mutations in the SLC25A13 gene. This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.[1]
Last updated: 7/11/2011

What are the signs and symptoms of adult-onset citrullinemia type II?

Adult-onset citrullinemia type II chiefly affects the nervous system, causing neuropsychiatric symptoms including nocturnal delirium, aggression, irritability, hyperactivity, delusions, disorientation, restlessness, drowsiness, loss of memory, flapping tremor, convulsive seizures, and coma. These signs and symptoms can be life-threatening. The signs and symptoms of this disorder appear suddenly during adulthood, usually between ages 20 and 50 years. The symptoms appear to be triggered by certain medications, infections, surgery, and alcohol intake.[1][2] Many individuals with adult-onset citrullinemia type II are fond of protein-rich and/or fatty foods and have an aversion to carbohydrate-rich foods. Pathologic findings include fatty infiltration and mild fibrosis of the liver despite little or no liver dysfunction.[2]

The features of adult-onset type II citrullinemia may also develop in people who as infants had a liver disorder called neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD). In many cases, the signs and symptoms of NICCD resolve within a year. Years or even decades later, however, some of these people develop the characteristic features of adult-onset type II citrullinemia.[1][2]

Last updated: 7/11/2011

How might adult-onset citrullinemia type II be diagnosed?

The diagnosis of adult-onset citrullinemia type II is suspected based in clinical and biochemical findings. Clinically, the condition is characterized by recurring episodes of hyperammonemia and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Confirmation can be made through molecular genetic testing. SLC25A13 is the only gene known to be associated with citrullinemia type II.[2]

More details regarding diagnosis of adult-onset citrullinemia type II can be accessed through GeneReviews.

GeneTests lists laboratories offering clinical genetic testing for citrullinemia type II. Clinical genetic tests are ordered to help diagnose a person or family and to aid in decisions regarding medical care or reproductive issues.

Last updated: 7/11/2011

How might adult-onset citrullinemia type II be treated?

Liver transplantation for adult-onset citrullinemia type II prevents hyperammonemic crises, corrects metabolic disturbances, and eliminates preferences for protein-rich foods. Administration of arginine decreases blood ammonia concentration. Reduction in calorie and/or carbohydrate intake can lessen high triglycerides. Individuals with adult-onset citrullinemia type II are encouraged to consume a diet rich in lipids and protein and low in carbohydrates. This may help to prevent hyperammonemia.[2]

Additional information related to the treatment of adult-onset citrullinemia type II can be accessed through eMedicine.

Last updated: 7/11/2011

How can I find researchers interested in adult-onset citrullinemia type II?

The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium is a team of doctors, nurses, research coordinators, and research labs throughout the US, working together to improve the lives of people with Urea Cycle Disorders. The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium maintains a registry for patients who wish to be contacted about clinical research opportunities.

For more information on the registry see: http://rarediseasesnetwork.epi.usf.edu/ucdc/takeaction/index.htm

The U.S. National Institutes of Health, through the National Library of Medicine, developed ClinicalTrials.gov to provide patients, family members, and members of the public with current information on clinical research studies. ClinicalTrials.gov lists trials that are studying or have studied Citrullinemia type II. Click on the link to go to ClinicalTrials.gov to read descriptions of these studies and access contact information for the associated researchers.

In addition, there is a study titled Study of Treatment and Metabolism in Patients With Urea Cycle Disorders which may be of interest to you. To find this trial, click on the highlighted text.

Last updated: 7/11/2011

References
Other Names for this Disease
  • Adult-onset citrullinemia type 2
  • Citrin deficiency
  • Citrullinemia type 2
  • Citrullinemia type II
  • CTLN2
See Disclaimer regarding information on this site. Some links on this page may take you to organizations outside of the National Institutes of Health.